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Cardiology and Cardiac Conditions Types

What is Cardiology?
The History of Cardiology
Types of Cardiac Conditions
Cardiac Diseases Treatment in Egypt

 

What is Cardiology?
Cardiology is simply the science that studies the heart of a human, its functions, and how to enable the heart to operate perfectly. The word cardiology is a blend of two Greek terms, the same as many other types of medicine. The first is the word Cardia or heart, and the second is Logia, which means science. Cardiology is concerned with both the diagnosis and treatment of any defects that would infect the heart or the circulatory system.
As one of the internal medicines, cardiology includes carrying out several procedures including tests, catheterizations, angioplasty, or positioning small tools to control the pace of the heart. Despite the fact that the main function of the heart is to regulate the blood inside the body, cardiologists are usually not interested in hematology and its diseases.

The History of Cardiology
Modern researches have recently noted that the study of ancient Egyptian mummies asserted that there were evidences of heart diseases as early as the 20th century BC. The oldest known heart condition is atherosclerosis. More than 10 Pharaonic mummies that were recently examined showed that the people at the time commonly suffered from atherosclerosis.
Scientists noted that humans suffered from several heart diseases as early as 4000 years ago or perhaps much longer than that period. However, it would be extremely hard to know when were physicians able to recognize the existence of heart diseases.
The first fact in this regard was that the famous Italian painter, Leonardo Da Vinci, studied coronary arteries at the end of the 15th century. Historians also give credit to William Harvey who was able to discover that the human blood moves around the body with the heart being the center.
The same as many other branches of medicine, cardiology witnessed an impressive leap in the 20th century. By the 1920s, a number of associations were established in the United States. The members of theses association were mainly doctors who were trying to do their best to discover various elements of the heart, its functions, diseases, diagnosis, and treatment.
Afterwards, courageous doctors collaborating with the American Heart Association started carrying out some significant experiments on coronary arteries. These experiments are still carried out today to examine various factors about the arteries and their conditions.
An important landmark in the history of the cardiac diseases was in 1958, when Mason Sones, a doctor working for the Cleveland Clinic, discovered a method to produce pictures of coronary arteries to determine their conditions, assist in the diagnosis, and determine the best treatment.
Another important event that played a vital role in the diagnosis and treatment of various heart diseases is the discovery of two famous cholesterol types: low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in the 1950s. Doctors from California University who achieved this discovery also found out that there is a close relation between cholesterol and atherosclerosis.

Types of Cardiac Conditions
Hypertension
Hypertension or high blood pressure is one of the main causes of dangerous heart disease and various severe conditions. Blood pressure is simply the power caused by the blood against the blood vessels. When this power increases, it causes major problems for the body.
The symptoms of hypertension are quite plenty and they are commonly confused with other diseases. This is why scientific researches assert that more than one third of the patients who suffer from high blood pressure do not recognize they do.
The symptoms would include headaches, general fatigue, a problem with the eyesight, chest pain, problems with breathing, and a nuisance or pain in the ears.
While the normal blood pressure should measure 130 over 80, any measurement that is above this level can be considered the beginning of a hypertension. Although it is a chronic disease, the appropriate treatment controls high blood pressure and all its side effects.

Angina
When patients complain that they suffer from a severe painful feeling in or around the heart, the first cardiac condition doctors usually diagnose is angina. This is when the heart does not receive the satisfactory amount of oxygen or various nutrients’ components.
One of the main causes of angina is a spasm that occurs to the arteries of the heart or that the conditions of the arteries become worth due to old age, smoking, and many other causes. Although it might cause from mild to severe pain, angina doesn’t cause damage to the heart.
Angina might also be a temporary situation when the heart works harder than the usual due to hard efforts or strong emotions. Patients usually feel the pains of angina around the chest and in the shoulders.
The symptoms of angina include aching, burning, or discomfort in these areas of the body. Experienced doctors would determine then if the conditions of the patient require treatment and which treatments in particular would be needed.

Coronary Artery Disease
When the conditions of the inner walls of the coronary arteries worsen, various plaques are formed and the arteries are narrowed than normal. This is one of the most dangerous heart conditions as the coronary arteries do not receive enough oxygen and this might cause heart attacks and sudden deaths.
Many factors contribute to the occurrence of coronary artery disease including high blood pressure and cholesterol. This is in addition to smoking and unhealthy life styles.
The symptoms of coronary artery disease include a feeling of discomfort in the area of the chest, being short of breath, and when the conditions get worse, it would cause a heart attack.

Heart Attacks
A heart attack is the most dangerous cordial condition. It happens when coronary arteries lose their blood supply. A blood clot causes the stoppage of the flow of blood to the heart and might cause sudden death, or the damage of the muscles of the heart.
A large number of patients around the world witness heart attacks. However, when men reach above 45 years old and women are above 55, the risk of heart attacks largely maximizes.
The symptoms of heart attacks can be divided into two categories. The first is severe symptoms that require direct medical intervention. These include hard pain in the areas of the chest, the shoulders, and sometimes the neck and the jaw. The minor symptoms include coughing, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and the change in the color of the face.

Heart Failure
Heart failure happens when the muscles of the heart do not inject enough blood to or from the heart. There is a wrong concept that heart failure means that the patient would certainly die. However, scientists proved that this is not true.
The narrowing of the arteries and the occurrence of some blood clots cause weakness to the arteries of the heart. The proper treatment and healthy diet nevertheless make the conditions much better.
Many reasons would cause heart failure like coronary arteries diseases, problems with the heart valves, uncontrolled diabetes, high blood pressure, and lung diseases.
There are several symptoms of heart failure that include short breath, weakness, a faster pace of heart beats, an increase in the production of urine inside the body, an increase in the weight of the body, chest pain, and the loss of appetite.

Arrhythmia
Arrhythmia is simply when there is a problem in the rhythms of the heart and its pace. This is when the heartbeats become faster or slower than normal. Arrhythmia is not dangerous and it often considerably improve due to medications. However, arrhythmia would be a sign of a much severer condition like heart failure or coronary arteries diseases.
The symptoms of arrhythmia may include fast heartbeat, some pains in the chest, abnormal sweating, and some noises in the chest. Several factors may cause arrhythmia like smoking, blood pressure, stress, drug abuse, some medications, and the consumption of a large quantity of coffee and/or alcohol.

Cardiac Diseases Treatment in Egypt
Egypt now hosts some of the best medical centers and hospitals around the world. There are plenty of experienced cardiologists and heart surgeons that provide the best cardiac services in Egypt. Characterized with the highest standards of quality and most successful treatment percentages, patients from various countries in the gulf began resorting to Egypt to receive treatments for their heart conditions.
Several hospitals in Egypt use an integrated range of the most advanced equipment and tools that are used all over the world for the diagnosis and the treatment of heart diseases. Treatments are offered to patients of all ages.
Medical centers provide a large group of services like, electrocardiography, treadmill ECG, Holter 24 and 48 hour monitoring, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, various types of Echocardiography, and 3D imagining.
The other invasive services would usually include cardiac catheterization, coronary angiography, percutaneous coronary interventions, structural heart disease interventions, and cardiac electrophysiology (EP) services. This is in addition to the best heart failure management services and treatments in the region.